A Comparison between Göbeklitepe, Nevali Çori, Çayönü, Çatalhöyük and Ain Ghazal Göbeklitepe has a significant place with its unique design among many ritual centres, shrines, communal buildings and settlements in Near East and Anatolia during the Neolithic Period. Göbeklitepe is located ten kilometres away from Şanlıurfa, Southeast of Turkey (Curry, 2008, pg.1) and covers eight hectares area (ibid). Limestone T-shaped pillars weight roughly five to ten tonnes (Banning, 2011, pp. 620-622) and carved figures of dangerous animals such as; rampant lions, wild donkeys, scorpions, snakes, a headless male figure identifiable with his erected penis and many other animal depictions give this place a distinctive character (Zimansky and Sagona, 2009,

This paper about the archaeological site of Gobekli Tepe is based on Ancient Depicted Sign Language that has been found to be in use globally in ancient times. The question of when and where this ancient communicative system was invented is unknown. As far back in time as these signs have been found they seem to have already been part of a complete system. At the moment it seems that the system may be 40,000 years or more old based on the idea that aboriginal Australians appear to have brought the signing system with them in their migrations. The system was carried by various cultures in their migrations (the

TIMELINE AND OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Gӧbekli Tepe is a prehistoric archaeological site in SE Turkey that has captured the attention of the world by how advanced it is for its age, an astounding 12,000 years old on the conventional timeline. This has required conventional scholars to readjust their thinking about the capabilities of ancient people because, according to their worldview, humans should not have been able to produce carved stone monuments like these that far back in time. Creationists do not and this difficult to accept because they believe that early man was a capable being, as created by God. In addition, because the creationist timeline is far shorter than the

With the discovery of Göbekli Tepe, Urfa has proven to be one of the oldest settlement in history and has been named “Zero Point of History” due to this feature. What happened in the history left countless artifacts and historical mysterious in Urfa and turned it into an open-air museum. One of the most important current mystery is why the life of Göbekli Tepe disappeared. It is an important fact that civilizations disappear not only for reasons such as war, but also due to environmental problems and sometimes, on the contrary, they have survived for many years. Based on these facts; this study aimed to draw attention to the issue of

Göbekli Tepe and the Impact of Excavations in the Anthropocene Widening the Anthropocene debates Since the Neolithization process, humans have relentlessly reshaped the planet to suit their needs. With industrialization in the 19the century and the detonations of atomic bombs since 1945, the anthropogenic impact on earth has become so severe, that the (not undisputed) concept of the Anthropocene has been proposed to follow the Holocene. The term was initially introduced by biologist Eugene F. Stroemer in the early 1980s and later popularized by the atmospheric chemist Paul Crutzen (Crutzen and Stoermer 2000; Crutzen 2002) to describe the irreversible and globally detectable effects of humans on earth. Changes in geological epochs are

“The sapient paradox: can cognitive neuroscience solve it?” This question was posed when the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research at the University of Cambridge initiated a conference devoted to the theme “Archaeology meets neuroscience”.[i] Colin Renfrew’s keynote article in the publication from that conference focuses on what he calls the “sapient paradox”, a puzzle that has been a thorn in the side of prehistory researchers for some time. In a nutshell, the question seems to be: why did humankind, after 200,000 years of nomadic hunting and gathering, begin building stone monuments, which prompted development of agriculture, resulting in the settled lifestyle that sent us into Western civilization?[ii]

We have interpreted much of the symbolism of Göbekli Tepe in terms of astronomical events. By matching low-relief carvings on some of the pillars at Göbekli Tepe to star asterisms we find compelling evidence that the famous ‘Vulture Stone’ is a date stamp for 10950 BC ± 250 yrs, which corresponds closely to the proposed Younger Dryas event, estimated at 10890 BC. We also find evidence that a key function of Göbekli Tepe was to observe meteor showers and record cometary encounters. Indeed, the people of Göbekli Tepe appear to have had a special interest in the Taurid meteor stream, the same meteor stream that is proposed as

During the Late Epipalaeolithic and Early Neolithic, societies across the Levant transformed their social, cultural and economic organisation, with new forms of food production, architecture and material culture. But to what extent were regional developments connected and how, in particular, did ideas and objects flow between the most southern and northern reaches of Southwest Asia? Finds from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of WF16 in southern Jordan resonate with those from Göbekli Tepe and other sites hundreds of kilometres to the north. Emphasising shared symbolism and ideology, the authors explore how connections may have arisen and how they were maintained, revealing expansive social networks spanning Southwest Asia that underpinned

The site of Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Turkey keeps fascinating archaeologists as it is being exposed. The excavation since 1995 has been accompanied by a lively discussion about the meaning and implications of its remarkable early Neolithic megalithic architecture, unprecedented in its monumentality, complexity and symbolic content. The building history and the chronological relations between the different structures (enclosures), however, remain in many ways a challenge and open to further analysis. The study presented here is an attempt to contribute in this direction by applying a preliminary architectural formal analysis in order to reconstruct aspects of the architectural design processes involved in the construction of the monumental enclosures.

“HUNTING GROUND ECONOMY” AND THE ROLE OF SPECULATIVE “KNOWLEDGE” At the beginning of the Early Holocene Period, the hunter-gatherer groups in the Upper Mesopotamia region left behind complex structures, monumental stone pillars, and various sculptures and Neolithic cultural zone that stand out with rich symbolism accompanying thereto in unprecedented permanent settlements. Excavations were initiated at new Neolithic sites within the scope of the “Taş Tepeler” project in Göbekli Tepe cultural zone, rather known for Göbekli Tepe Neolithic Period site. By whom, how and why this early Neolithic civilization that reverses some basic assumptions on the history of the mankind remains the most important area under discussion.

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